Mathematical UTF-8 Special CharactersDon't look back. You're not going that way. - Barbara Johnson
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Mathematical UTF-8 Special Characters

Here are the most common mathematical HTML 4.0 special characters from the UTF-8 Character Set. We've also included the Greek alphebet since they are used in mathematical equations so frequently.

Mathematical HTML character codes for the UTF-8 Character Set

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In order to be specify the UTF-8 Character set, you will need to ensure that the following line appears in the head section of every web page.

<META http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html" charset="UTF-8">

A full Character Entity Reference for HTML 4.0 is available at:

The Unicode organization maintains a table of all the 1.1 million codes at

Mathematical, Greek and Symbolic characters for HTML

Name Symb Decimal Hex Code Description ISO
&fnof;  ƒ &#402; U+0192 Latin small f with hook = function = florin ISOtech
&bull;  • &#8226; U+2022 bullet = black small circle ISOpub
&hellip;  … &#8230; U+2026 horizontal ellipsis = three dot leader ISOpub
&prime;  ′ &#8242; U+2032 prime = minutes = feet ISOtech
&Prime;  ″ &#8243; U+2033 double prime = seconds = inches ISOtech
&oline;  ‾ &#8254; U+203E overline = spacing overscore New
&frasl;  ⁄ &#8260; U+2044 fraction slash New
&weierp;  ℘ &#8472; U+2118 script capital P = power set = Weierstrass p ISOamso
&image;  ℑ &#8465; U+2111 blackletter capital I = imaginary part ISOamso
&real;  ℜ &#8476; U+211C blackletter capital R = real part symbol ISOamso
&trade;  ™ &#8482; U+2122 trade mark sign ISOnum
&alefsym;  ℵ &#8501; U+2135 alef symbol = first transfinite cardinal New
&larr;  ← &#8592; U+2190 leftwards arrow ISOnum
&uarr;  ↑ &#8593; U+2191 upwards arrow ISOnum
&rarr;  → &#8594; U+2192 rightwards arrow ISOnum
&darr;  ↓ &#8595; U+2193 downwards arrow ISOnum
&harr;  ↔ &#8596; U+2194 left right arrow ISOamsa
&crarr;  ↵ &#8629; U+21B5 downwards arrow with corner leftwards = carriage return New
&lArr;  ⇐ &#8656; U+21D0 leftwards double arrow ISOtech
&uArr;  ⇑ &#8657; U+21D1 upwards double arrow ISOamsa
&rArr;  ⇒ &#8658; U+21D2 rightwards double arrow ISOtech
&dArr;  ⇓ &#8659; U+21D3 downwards double arrow ISOamsa
&hArr;  ⇔ &#8660; U+21D4 left right double arrow ISOamsa
&forall;  ∀ &#8704; U+2200 for all ISOtech
&part;  ∂ &#8706; U+2202 partial differential ISOtech
&exist;  ∃ &#8707; U+2203 there exists ISOtech
&empty;  ∅ &#8709; U+2205 empty set = null set = diameter ISOamso
&nabla;  ∇ &#8711; U+2207 nabla = backward difference ISOtech
&isin;  ∈ &#8712; U+2208 element of ISOtech
&notin;  ∉ &#8713; U+2209 not an element of ISOtech
&ni;  ∋ &#8715; U+220B contains as member ISOtech
&prod;  ∏ &#8719; U+220F n-ary product = product sign ISOamsb
&sum;  ∑ &#8721; U+2211 n-ary sumation ISOamsb
&minus;  − &#8722; U+2212 minus sign ISOtech
&lowast;  ∗ &#8727; U+2217 asterisk operator ISOtech
&radic;  √ &#8730; U+221A square root = radical sign ISOtech
&prop;  ∝ &#8733; U+221D proportional to ISOtech
&infin;  ∞ &#8734; U+221E infinity ISOtech
&ang;  ∠ &#8736; U+2220 angle ISOamso
&and;  ∧ &#8743; U+2227 logical and = wedge ISOtech
&or;  ∨ &#8744; U+2228 logical or = vee ISOtech
&cap;  ∩ &#8745; U+2229 intersection = cap ISOtech
&cup;  ∪ &#8746; U+222A union = cup ISOtech
&int;  ∫ &#8747; U+222B integral ISOtech
&there4;  ∴ &#8756; U+2234 therefore ISOtech
&sim;  ∼ &#8764; U+223C tilde operator = varies with = similar to ISOtech
&cong;  ≅ &#8773; U+2245 approximately equal to ISOtech
&asymp;  ≈ &#8776; U+2248 almost equal to = asymptotic to ISOamsr
&ne;  ≠ &#8800; U+2260 not equal to ISOtech
&equiv;  ≡ &#8801; U+2261 identical to ISOtech
&le;  ≤ &#8804; U+2264 less-than or equal to ISOtech
&ge;  ≥ &#8805; U+2265 greater-than or equal to ISOtech
&sub;  ⊂ &#8834; U+2282 subset of ISOtech
&sup;  ⊃ &#8835; U+2283 superset of ISOtech
&nsub;  ⊄ &#8836; U+2284 not a subset of ISOamsn
&sube;  ⊆ &#8838; U+2286 subset of or equal to ISOtech
&supe;  ⊇ &#8839; U+2287 superset of or equal to ISOtech
&oplus;  ⊕ &#8853; U+2295 circled plus = direct sum ISOamsb
&otimes;  ⊗ &#8855; U+2297 circled times = vector product ISOamsb
&perp;  ⊥ &#8869; U+22A5 up tack = orthogonal to = perpendicular ISOtech
&sdot;  ⋅ &#8901; U+22C5 dot operator ISOamsb
&lceil;  ⌈ &#8968; U+2308 left ceiling = apl upstile ISOamsc
&rceil;  ⌉ &#8969; U+2309 right ceiling ISOamsc
&lfloor;  ⌊ &#8970; U+230A left floor = apl downstile ISOamsc
&rfloor;  ⌋ &#8971; U+230B right floor ISOamsc
&lang;  〈 &#9001; U+2329 left-pointing angle bracket = bra ISOtech
&rang;  〉 &#9002; U+232A right-pointing angle bracket = ket ISOtech
&loz;  ◊ &#9674; U+25CA lozenge ISOpub
&spades;  ♠ &#9824; U+2660 black spade suit ISOpub
&clubs;  ♣ &#9827; U+2663 black club suit = shamrock ISOpub
&hearts;  ♥ &#9829; U+2665 black heart suit = valentine ISOpub
&diams;  ♦ &#9830; U+2666 black diamond suit ISOpub
&Alpha;  Α &#913; U+0391 Greek capital letter alpha  
&Beta;  Β &#914; U+0392 Greek capital letter beta  
&Gamma;  Γ &#915; U+0393 Greek capital letter gamma ISOgrk3
&Delta;  Δ &#916; U+0394 Greek capital letter delta ISOgrk3
&Epsilon;  Ε &#917; U+0395 Greek capital letter epsilon  
&Zeta;  Ζ &#918; U+0396 Greek capital letter zeta  
&Eta;  Η &#919; U+0397 Greek capital letter eta  
&Theta;  Θ &#920; U+0398 Greek capital letter theta ISOgrk3
&Iota;  Ι &#921; U+0399 Greek capital letter iota  
&Kappa;  Κ &#922; U+039A Greek capital letter kappa  
&Lambda;  Λ &#923; U+039B Greek capital letter lambda ISOgrk3
&Mu;  Μ &#924; U+039C Greek capital letter mu  
&Nu;  Ν &#925; U+039D Greek capital letter nu  
&Xi;  Ξ &#926; U+039E Greek capital letter xi ISOgrk3
&Omicron;  Ο &#927; U+039F Greek capital letter omicron  
&Pi;  Π &#928; U+03A0 Greek capital letter pi ISOgrk3
&Rho;  Ρ &#929; U+03A1 Greek capital letter rho  
&Sigma;  Σ &#931; U+03A3 Greek capital letter sigma ISOgrk3
&Tau;  Τ &#932; U+03A4 Greek capital letter tau  
&Upsilon;  Υ &#933; U+03A5 Greek capital letter upsilon ISOgrk3
&Phi;  Φ &#934; U+03A6 Greek capital letter phi ISOgrk3
&Chi;  Χ &#935; U+03A7 Greek capital letter chi  
&Psi;  Ψ &#936; U+03A8 Greek capital letter psi ISOgrk3
&Omega;  Ω &#937; U+03A9 Greek capital letter omega ISOgrk3
&alpha;  α &#945; U+03B1 Greek small letter alpha ISOgrk3
&beta;  β &#946; U+03B2 Greek small letter beta ISOgrk3
&gamma;  γ &#947; U+03B3 Greek small letter gamma ISOgrk3
&delta;  δ &#948; U+03B4 Greek small letter delta ISOgrk3
&epsilon;  ε &#949; U+03B5 Greek small letter epsilon ISOgrk3
&zeta;  ζ &#950; U+03B6 Greek small letter zeta ISOgrk3
&eta;  η &#951; U+03B7 Greek small letter eta ISOgrk3
&theta;  θ &#952; U+03B8 Greek small letter theta ISOgrk3
&iota;  ι &#953; U+03B9 Greek small letter iota ISOgrk3
&kappa;  κ &#954; U+03BA Greek small letter kappa ISOgrk3
&lambda;  λ &#955; U+03BB Greek small letter lambda ISOgrk3
&mu;  μ &#956; U+03BC Greek small letter mu ISOgrk3
&nu;  ν &#957; U+03BD Greek small letter nu ISOgrk3
&xi;  ξ &#958; U+03BE Greek small letter xi ISOgrk3
&omicron;  ο &#959; U+03BF Greek small letter omicron New
&pi;  π &#960; U+03C0 Greek small letter pi ISOgrk3
&rho;  ρ &#961; U+03C1 Greek small letter rho ISOgrk3
&sigmaf;  ς &#962; U+03C2 Greek small letter final sigma ISOgrk3
&sigma;  σ &#963; U+03C3 Greek small letter sigma ISOgrk3
&tau;  τ &#964; U+03C4 Greek small letter tau ISOgrk3
&upsilon;  υ &#965; U+03C5 Greek small letter upsilon ISOgrk3
&phi;  φ &#966; U+03C6 Greek small letter phi ISOgrk3
&chi;  χ &#967; U+03C7 Greek small letter chi ISOgrk3
&psi;  ψ &#968; U+03C8 Greek small letter psi ISOgrk3
&omega;  ω &#969; U+03C9 Greek small letter omega ISOgrk3
&thetasym;  ϑ &#977; U+03D1 Greek small letter theta symbol New
&upsih;  ϒ &#978; U+03D2 Greek upsilon with hook symbol New
&piv;  ϖ &#982; U+03D6 Greek pi symbol ISOgrk3
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